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Van Gogh: murder mystery or straightforward suicide?

Specialists from Amsterdam museum refute recent claims that 16-year-old schoolboy killed the artist

Van Gogh’s self-destructive tendencies are seen in Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889

Who killed Vincent van Gogh? The artist’s death in France was always assumed to be suicide, until the publication of the definitive biography by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith two years ago. In it, the American writers unveiled a shocking theory: a 16-year-old schoolboy, René Secrétan, had shot Van Gogh, though whether intentionally or accidentally was unclear. The authors argued that the artist, who took two days to die, “welcomed death” and protected Secrétan by claiming that it was suicide.

Now the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam has joined the debate, with an article in the July issue of the Burlington Magazine. In a detailed review of the biography, two of its research specialists, Louis van Tilborgh and Teio Meedendorp, insist that Van Gogh’s death was suicide.

In the 960-page book, Van Gogh: the Life, Naifeh and Smith wrote: “For an act of such far-reaching significance and subsequent notoriety, surprisingly little is known about the incident that led to Van Gogh’s death at the age of 37.” All that is certain is that he died two days after sustaining a gunshot wound on 27 July 1890, somewhere in Auvers-sur-Oise.

They set out to investigate, relying heavily on a little-known interview given by Secrétan in 1957, shortly before his death. Secrétan recalled that he had owned a pistol, which he used for shooting squirrels. He and his elder brother, Gaston, knew Van Gogh and used to tease him.

René Secrétan claimed that the artist had stolen the gun from him but revealed nothing more about the shooting. Naifeh and Smith interpreted the interview as a deathbed confession and cited the late art historian John Rewald, who recalled a rumour in Auvers that “young boys shot Vincent accidentally”. According to the story, Van Gogh decided to protect René and Gaston from charges of murder or manslaughter.

Forensic evidence

Naifeh and Smith focused on the nature of the wound, concluding that the gun was fired “at some distance from the body, not close up”, with the bullet entering “from an unusual, oblique angle (not straight on)”. This evidence came from the doctors who treated Van Gogh: his friend Dr Paul Gachet and a local practitioner, Dr Jean Mazery.

Having examined the claims, Van Tilborgh and Meedendorp remain convinced that Van Gogh’s death was suicide. Their article argues that Secrétan’s interview does not substantiate the murder or manslaughter theory “in the slightest”. All it suggests is that Van Gogh may have somehow obtained the gun from the brothers. They also argue that, although Rewald repeated the rumour about the Secrétans, he “professed no particular belief in its accuracy”.

They cite new material published last year in a book by Alain Rohan (Vincent van Gogh: Aurait-on retrouvé l’arme du suicide?). Dr Gachet recollected that the wound was brown with a purple halo. The purplish ring would have been caused by the bullet’s impact, but the brownish one would have come from powder burns, indicating that the gun had been held close to the chest, under a shirt. This would almost certainly mean that Van Gogh was responsible.

Rohan also produced new evidence about the weapon. In the 1950s, a rusty revolver was discovered buried in a field just behind the Château d’Auvers, where Van Gogh is said to have shot himself. An examination suggested that it had been in the soil for 60 to 80 years. The gun was discovered close to the Chemin des Berthelées, the spot painted by Dr Gachet’s son in 1904, in a picture he entitled Auvers, the area where Vincent committed suicide. The revolver was found just beyond the low farmhouses in the centre of the painting.

The Burlington article also focuses on Van Gogh’s final weeks, arguing against the long-accepted theory that the artist was primarily concerned about losing financial support from his brother Theo. Van Tilborgh and Meedendorp say that Vincent was more concerned that Theo was “shutting him out” of decisions about his life. Theo was having serious problems with his employer, the Boussod Valadon gallery, and was considering setting up his own business. Theo decided to stay with the gallery but did not really consult his brother—making him feel even lonelier.

Van Tilborgh and Meedendorp conclude that suicide was “not an impetuous act, but a decision carefully arrived at”. Although Theo’s behaviour played a role, the key factor was “the painful idea that his obsession with his art had got him nowhere apart from toppling him into a chasm of mental turmoil”.

The two museum scholars looked for evidence of this turmoil in Vincent’s final weeks, pointing out that he had what was effectively a farewell note to Theo in his pocket at the time of the shooting. Although Wheatfield with Crows has traditionally been regarded as his last picture, it was probably made around 10 July, more than two weeks before his death, when he wrote of painting “immense stretches of wheatfields under turbulent skies, and I made a point of trying to express sadness, extreme loneliness”. Van Tilborgh has already suggested that the artist’s last two pictures, both unfinished, were Tree Roots and Farms near Auvers. The Burlington article suggests that the former was a programmatic adieu, expressing the struggle for survival of the elm trees.

Van Gogh said he had shot himself, as did those who were closest to him. Naifeh and Smith argued that the artist was lying; Van Tilborgh and Meedendorp accept it as the truth. Arguably, more attention should be focused on contemporary reports that it was suicide.

Dr Gachet immediately sent a note to Theo saying that Vincent had “wounded himself”. Adeline Ravoux, whose father ran the inn where the artist lodged, later recalled that Van Gogh had told a policeman that “it is I who wanted to kill myself”. Emile Bernard, an artist who attended the funeral, said that Van Gogh had stated just before dying that “his suicide had been absolutely deliberate”—a comment that probably came from Theo or Dr Gachet.

Horrific injury

Vincent was closer to Theo than anyone else. It is difficult to believe that he would have lied to his brother about the horrific injury simply to save two taunting teenagers from the attention of the police. After all, suicide was much more painful for Theo to bear, since he felt a degree of responsibility.

Most poignant are Vincent’s own final words: “This is how I wanted to go.” Theo added, in a letter to his wife, Jo: “It took a few moments & then it was over & he found the peace he hadn’t been able to find on earth.”

Auvers, the area where Vincent committed suicide, 1904, by Louis van Ryssel (Paul Gachet Jr)
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13 Nov 14
20:29 CET


Flip-sided to the well-known canvases of Vincent's are his much less examined letters, wherein the workings of his mind are displayed in complete after complete well-written sentences. From the hundreds and hundreds of pages I've read, one sees not the ravings of a mad agonizing genius, but rather a hard-working goal-orientated craftsman. He was well-read (many references to Tolstoy, Dickens, etc.) and was interested in the human condition as spectrummed by real life into art (he documents the many painters he copied to learn his craft). The signs of physical duress seemed more dietary than some form of bi-polar depression -- one reads how he had nothing but coffee and a crust for many days before one of the sanitarium visits. The letters testify to a man with incredible powers of observation - both literary and with a paintbrush - who was self-commissioned to record life as clearly as possible. He never would have taken his own life. Ever. Read his own words -- it's all there.

23 Oct 14
20:40 CET


I think that it matters not whether he was killed or committed suicide. I discovered this great artist 1 year ago and when I saw his documentary I knew immediately that I need to know more about this so called " mad artist " and I did. the misunderstanding of his man and all the madness he dealt put into his art. almost a self portrait in every painting he had has truly touched my weary heart, you see I also see things in the eyes of Van Gogh . I know how it feels to be neglected and misunderstood , cruelly judged and hard to budge. people should know that that mad man who roamed the fields of province was not only the greatest artist who has ever walked the face of this earth but one of the greatest men who ever lived.

7 Sep 14
12:31 CET


weather the man was killed or ,suicide is not important, remember the art. that's important

1 Sep 14
17:8 CET


Why would the things he had with him, paint box, canvases, easel, also disappear along with the revolver? Why would the revolver end up buried? Someone was there, and took these things to hide them. Why would he do this, before shooting himself, and then, after surviving, burying the gun? Why? Someone shot him, or made him shoot himself. Someone was there. The lone suicide is just not possible.

30 Jul 14
22:20 CET


Irrespective of the contradictions in the reports of physical evidence, it certainly seems possible that a couple of boys with a gun taunting a suicidal man could give in to his exasperated demand to go ahead and shoot me. In this way it could be a murder AND a suicide.

15 Mar 14
17:17 CET


Reply on Jim McEwan: The mortal remains of Vincent became exhumed in 1905 on request of Théos wife Jo but not for reason of autopsy. Dr Gachet attended the reburial (which was conducted at a new spot). An appalling report of Dr. Gachets son indicates he examined the skeleton. Certainly, the bullet is not lyying in the actual grave. Jo directed that the second grave must perpetuate peace for Vincent. Jos wish became obligatory by french law in 1962. For good reason. More info's:

16 Nov 13
16:51 CET


One would assume that the fatal bullet is still intact and lodged within his body, and as fas as I am aware there appears to be no documentation that the bullet was ever removed by Dr Gachet or anyone else. If the alleged recovered revolver is still available for forensic eaxamination, then why not have his body exhumed in an attempt to recover the bullet and ballistically match it to the weapon. That would end any conjecture and conspiracy theories and perhaps go a long way in leading to the truth of the matter being revealed

23 Aug 13
16:0 CET


Interesting article that coincides with my investigation into the death of van Gogh. Naifeh and Smith interpret facts (not observed documentary) about a possible homicide. According Hulsker catalog, the artist's last painting correspond to "Sheaves of Wheat" (JH2125) and not to “Tree Roots and Trunks” (JH2113) (?). In any case, his canvases and final letters convey feelings of sadness and farewell. Vincent suffered a depression with suicide risk.

15 Aug 13
17:32 CET


If those boys purposely provided Vincent with a gun at his own request (for fun), and he shot him-self right there on the spot - does that make it murder or suicide?

9 Aug 13
22:23 CET


Vincent was one of favorite artist, and I pray that GOD forgives him for this actions.

9 Aug 13
22:23 CET


Van Gogh cut his right ear self,after them he was a long time at hospital

9 Aug 13
17:41 CET


I believe Naifeh and Smith's theory that van Gogh was shot by the teenage boys. Why would van Gogh bury a pistol he shot himself with? Would he even be physically able to do so? Why shoot himself in a way that would cause him agonizing pain? I don't think one who wants to die would shoot themselves in the stomach. And lastly, I believe Vincent's last comment, "This is the way I wanted to go" refers to the fact that he was dying in the presence of his beloved brother, Theo. Regardless, Vincent lead a fascinating life and left an enduring mystery and legacy.

9 Aug 13
16:40 CET


i have never believed the "murder" angle. van gogh had a history of suicidal attempts & physical harm, and was known to have deep bouts with depression, so it just makes sense. what i want to know is, what happened to the gun they found?? more study is needed!

9 Aug 13
16:0 CET


I have read the Nafeth & Smith book. I was believing it too. So, the new article is news to me. Since it was always considered a suicide, as the artist claimed it was. The old stories about the incident, always talk about the wound being in "the groin" and that Vincent messed up everthing in his life, even his suicide. But if the wound was in the groin and fired and an angle with some distance, that points to an "accidental" shooting. Could he have just dropped the gun to have that happen? Then, the new article talks about the coloration of the wound, and that the artist put the gun under his shirt to shoot himself. Why is there so much difference in the stories? Were there police reports taken of this or news articles of the day? The whole thing seems to be a mystery, about who shot him, where he was shot, or and so on. We may never know the true story, now that all the parties are dead. This is getting as bad as the JFK assasination conspiracy stories. Every so often a new theory.

8 Aug 13
22:38 CET


was a gun found in Vincent's possession at the time he was shot? was the gun that was dug up at the site the same caliber? the brothers gun went missing, but why would they give their pistol to a person they used to 'taunt'?

8 Aug 13
18:16 CET


Professor of art history and author of the acclaimed book Van Gogh's Untold Journey discusses Vincent's alleged suicide in his review at

8 Aug 13
18:17 CET


Very interesting! I've read both the biography as well as the Burlington article. While I agree that Naifeh and Smith raise some interesting questions, I'd have to go along with the Van Gogh Museum on this one. I think it was suicide. But that doesn't detract from what I consider to be an excellent biography.

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